Depression: Symptoms, Causes, Treatment & Diagnosis

Depression is the sadness of the past. Depression is a mood disorder that disturbs reality. The depressed patient feels gloomy, neglected, and uninterested in performing new tasks. They overthink past mistakes, losses, heartbreaks and their regrets and guilt commit them to suicide. People suffering from depression are unable to see the colors of life and they consider themselves a culprit for the incident that has happened to them.

Depression has become the root cause of suicidal attempts nowadays. Almost everyone has some regrets of the past or for the wishes not come true so far. This mood disorder is folding people of every age group into it.

Safe Use of Medication

Symptoms of Anxiety Disorder

Symptoms of depression are mostly psychological based that include anxiety, guilt, sadness, headache, overthinking irritability, gloominess, lack of interest, frustration, lack of sleep due to overthinking, unable to see the bright side of life, etc.

Causes of Depression

Depression has multiple causes and factors that affect both genders the people of all age groups.

  1. Hormonal imbalance is the most important cause of depression, especially in females. Estrogen and progesterone hormones regulate the reproductive cycle in females. Reduction in female hormones in conditions like menopause cause depression. And if these hormones imbalance occurs during reproductive age, it can cause infertility which is considered the major factor of depression in our society.
  2. Biogenic amines: Our brain produces natural chemicals known as biogenic amines that include epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin. Lack of these amines depression the nerve endings and person becomes victim to depression. Monoamine oxidases and catechol o methyl transferases are the naturally occurring Enzymes that target the biogenic amines to degrade.
  3. Social factors: This is the age of social networking and when people see reel glamor, they get suffered from depression for not having such luxurious life. On the other hand, those who don’t interact with society are more depressive for not being able to say their regrets to anyone.
  4. Psychological disorder: People who le have psychological disorders like schizophrenia or bipolar disorders, are commonly depressed. These people have their own imaginary world and cannot control their emotions.
  5. Other causes are the drugs that depress our nervous system. These include morphine and other opioid narcotics, cannabis and its derivatives, alcohol, etc. Past heartbreaks, traumas, loss of loved ones are other causes of depression.

Treatment of Depression

Depression has different root causes and the treatment regimen would be different as well.

  • Pharmacotherapy: The medication used to treat depression has a common mechanism of action which is, the elevation of levels of biogenic amines. Anti-depressants have various classes that aim to boost up the excitatory neurotransmitters in the brain, it includes SSRIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors), SNRI (serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors), TCAs (tricyclic antidepressants), MAO (monoamine oxidase) inhibitor, and last but not least COMT (catechol-o-methyl transferase) inhibitors.
  • Psychological therapy includes meditation, yoga, building up the cognitive and intuitive powers, etc.
  • Electroconvulsive therapy is performed in which shocks are given to the patient to excite the neurons.
  • Aromatherapy is effective in depression. Lavender flowers scent, chamomile flowers, etc. are used in this regard.
  • Supplemental therapy is also useful to reduce the risks of depression.
  • Social support: Family members and friends are counseled to support the patient.

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